April 30, 2008
April 28, 2008
* Fun -- collaboration for purely social purposes
* Work -- collaboration for narrowly-defined business purposes
He goes on to say that businesses fail when they try to use social media for any purposes that lie somewhere in the "muddled middle" between work and fun. He continues,
Where organizations get in trouble is when they venture into the muddled middle between these two options. They throw out some collaborative tools—either new-style social media like wikis and social networks, or old-style tools like Notes or Sharepoint or ERoom—and say, “go forth and be collaborative.” They don’t insist on a collaborative objective or business benefit, but they still somehow expect business value. They seem to assume that just because a technology is available, it will lead to collaboration, and that the collaboration will yield an ROI. I’ve seen countless instances where this hasn’t worked, and very few where it has.While I'd be the last person to argue against his warning about relying solely on tools without sufficient thought for the business objectives, there may be a nuance here that we ought to consider: using social media for fun at work may be a critical precondition to using these tools successfully for just work. In my post on Creating a Culture of Collaboration, some of the necessary prerequisites of a truly collaborative culture listed there are: building trust, and creating space and time for informal connections among colleagues. These are exactly the sorts of things that social media can help with. It may be that through the implementation of the right tools, an organization can focus and strengthen its bent towards collaboration by making collaboration easier. Once that culture of collaboration is deeply rooted within an organization, collaboration for strictly business purposes will be a natural outgrowth of the existing social interactions.
So have we been unfair in our expectations of social media? If we put the work cart before the fun/social network horse, should we be surprised when there is disappointing user adoption? Perhaps it's time that we reordered things: first build the trust and social networks, then recruit those networks to engage in specific business projects. That's when we'll see the true power of collaborating for fun AND work together.
April 26, 2008
1. Who has the time to send updates?
2. Who has the time to read them?
3. Who (other than a mother) actually cares about the minutiae of another person's life?
Today, even this dinosaur began to comprehend the potential power of Twitter when I read the story of James Karl Buck who used Twitter to let his network know that he had been arrested in Egypt. Here's an excerpt from the summary from CNN:
Buck's network then acted to spread news of his circumstances and help win his release. It's a great story that depended on one piece of good luck -- the police let Buck keep his cellphone.
On his way to the police station, Buck took out his cell phone and sent a message to his friends and contacts using the micro-blogging site Twitter.
The message only had one word. "Arrested."
Within seconds, colleagues in the United States and his blogger-friends in Egypt -- the same ones who had taught him the tool only a week earlier -- were alerted that he was being held.
So, while I mostly still don't want to know that you're about to go to a movie or have just had lunch, news of your arrest probably would rouse this dinosaur. Maybe it's time for me to take another look at Twitter...
PS: Look out for the inevitable blogpile on this story. It will be hard to avoid.
April 25, 2008
Best Practice asks "What is working?", while Next Practice asks "What could work - more powerfully?"Best practice has often functioned as a type of insurance policy: if you've followed best practices, who can criticize? However, the focus on next practice moves us out of the insurance policy nature of best practice into imagination and innovation. Very dangerous. And yet, so necessary.
Mark says that he might blog on this concept of next practice. I'm looking forward to reading his observations. In the meantime, thank you Mark and Derek for giving us a more nuanced way of thinking about best practices.
April 24, 2008
In the context of law firm knowledge management, there may be some additional issues we have to face. Best practices within a law firm can cover content (e.g., model documents) and process (e.g., electronic discovery procedures). But arriving at best practices regarding content requires a different kind of effort than that required for a recommended process.
For just about any business challenge, there really is no such thing as absolute best practices. Best practices are very dependent on the specific challenge, context, and capabilities of the company.
Before blindly copying a competitor’s best practice, or assuming a historic best practice will continue to provide positive results, ask three questions:
• Are market circumstances similar?
• Are corporate contexts similar?
• Is the practice “modular,” with few interactions with other corporate systems?
If the answers to these questions are yes, then mimicking best practice can succeed. If the answer to any of these questions are no, think twice. Following so-called best practice might lead to disappointing results.
With respect to process-related best practices, gathering and analyzing a large cross-section of firm experience should reveal what behavior is more likely than not to lead to success (or avoid disaster). In this case, the task is primarily to identify and describe those preferred behaviors in writing, and then train colleagues to follow them.
When it comes to content-related best practices, however, success depends largely on the ability of the lawyer to comprehend a business proposal and capture it in the form of a legally-enforceable agreement. A best practices guide can help the lawyer with the analytical and mechanical process of preparing that agreement, but it generally cannot dictate the final words. Those words are almost entirely dependent on the details of the specific business deal. So the challenge of content-focused best practices is to reduce the number of moving parts, to limit the areas in which the lawyer must exercise drafting discretion. In practice this means ensuring you have bullet-proof boilerplate language, augmented by a large annotated clause library on which the lawyer can draw in lieu of drafting from scratch.
But here's an additional wrinkle: once you know the right way to do electronic discovery or a due diligence review, for example, that guidance holds until there is a major change in technology or the allocation of risks. By contrast, best practices with respect to content are in a constant state of flux. Market conditions change and have an immediate impact on content. Equally pressing are refinements arising from changes in case law and legislation. In this context, creating and maintaining content-related best practices requires constant vigilance and consistent follow through. And now we're talking real money.
In an earlier discussion among large law firm KM managers, we bemoaned the paucity of written best practices in most firms. Given the costs and complications of creating and maintaining content-related best practices, perhaps this lack is completely understandable.
April 23, 2008
This paper has three parts. We start by briefly exploring what we mean by collaboration and why organisations and individuals should build their collaboration capability. Then, based on that understanding, we lay out a series of steps for developing a collaboration capability. We finish the paper with a simple test of your current collaboration capability.The authors are very clear about the role of technology in collaboration. And given my past comments on technology in the context of collaboration and knowledge sharing, I'm delighted to be able to quote these kindred spirits:
Of course technology plays an important role in effective collaboration. We are not anti-technology. Rather we want to help redress the balance and shift the emphasis from merely thinking about collaboration technology to thinking about collaboration skills, practices, technology and supporting culture. Technology makes things possible; people collaborating makes it happen.
April 22, 2008
Your job is to help people achieve positive, lasting change in behavior. How do you deal with people who have no desire to change?
Have you ever tried to change the behavior of an adult who had absolutely no interest in changing? How much luck did you have with your attempts at this ‘religious conversion’?
Have you ever tried to change the behavior of a spouse, partner or parent who had no interest in changing? How did that work out for you?
My guess is that you have tried and have been consistently unsuccessful. You may have even alienated the person you were trying to enlighten.
If they do not care, do not waste your time.
Research on coaching is clear and consistent. Coaching is most successful when applied to people with potential who want to improve -- not when applied to people who have no interest in changing. This is true whether you are acting as a professional coach, a manager, a family member, or a friend.
Does the same apply to a law firm?
In terms of making macro changes, absolutely. We've seen it vividly in the world of law firm knowledge management. The firm may say that it wants a world class KM system, but if management doesn't get behind that goal and support it through moral suasion and concrete rewards, that firm will have a hard time achieving its KM goal.
However, that's not the end of the story because even when the opportunity for macro change is forestalled, there may be an opportunity for useful micro change. And this is where we see the difference between trying to change an individual and trying to change an organization.
Working with an organization offers a few advantages over coaching an individual. The most significant of these advantages is that an organization is a "system" with multiple points of entry and multiple points of control. Therefore, it is possible to find one of these points of control and making small-scale changes. As I've noted earlier, these incremental changes can add up over time. So, while it may not be possible to transform your law firm overnight from a knowledge management wasteland to a knowledge management paradise, you can take several key steps to move in the right direction:
* aligning the evaluation and compensation system to reward active knowledge sharing,
* integrating and leveraging existing silos of knowledge,
* identifying and recruiting content creators and thought leaders,
* implementing tech tools that facilitate active and passive knowledge sharing, etc.
This approach requires patience, but does produce results if done systematically.
The author Tobias Wolfe made a similar observation in an interview he gave National Public Radio this morning, when he said that we should not disdain the value of making a one-degree course correction in our lives. He pointed to Ernest Shackleton, saying that if he and his crew had missed their course by even one degree, they would not have made it to Elephant Island and South Georgia Island and would not have survived. In Wolfe's view, we should seek every opportunity to make a one-degree course correction in our lives, because it can yield life-changing results for comparatively little effort.
April 21, 2008
April 18, 2008
- After Action Review
- Case Study
- Communities of Practice
- Gone Well, Not Gone Well
- Knowledge Cafe
- Knowledge Exchange
- Knowledge Marketplace
- Peer Assist
- Rapid Evidence Review
- Retrospective Review
According to I&DEA, these "knowledge management tools and techniques are designed for use in everyday work to improve the way we find, use, create, manage and share knowledge." As with some of the other KM resources I've mentioned before (e.g., Dare to Share's Knowledge Management Toolkit), I pass this along with the suggestion that you take a look to see if you find a tool or technique you haven't tried before that might be appropriate for a KM problem or opportunity you are facing.
April 17, 2008
Now we have a stunning example of what happens when a particular job is perfectly matched to the skills and temperament of an employee. The case in point has to do with software testing -- a task that few creative genius code writers like to do. As a result, we're told that far too much software gets implemented before the bugs are found and fixed. This results in unnecessary cost and unnecessary end-user abuse.
The Harvard Business School's Working Knowledge has published a summary of a fascinating case study, entitled "A Surprising Right Fit for Software Testing," focusing on an innovative Danish company, Specialisterne. This company carries out software testing on behalf of other organizations that have written the code and need to be sure it is ready to implement. The company undertakes testing that its clients cannot do simply or inexpensively using available automated testing methods. Specialisterne's strength is that unlike most IT organizations, its employees have a special gift that allows them to excel at testing: 75% of its employees have Asperger's syndrome or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Software testing involves tasks code writers might describe as repetitive or tedious. Their prejudice aside, these tasks in fact require "high intelligence, precision-oriented skills, deep concentration, and patience" all of which sometimes accompany Asperger's or ASD.
Drawing on the experience of Specialisterne, I wonder what type of person makes the best knowledge manager?
April 16, 2008
1. Secure Senior Management Support for KM by building a strong business case
2. Move beyond "Knowledge for Knowledge's Sake"
3. Determine What Knowledge is Critical
4. Knowledge is sticky
5. If You Build It, They Will Not Necessarily Come
6. Focus on breaking down structural barriers to the flow of knowledge between people who have it and those who need it--not changing the "culture."
This overview contains enough meat that it's definitely worth a read and probably many more blog posts. It will give you plenty to chew on -- whether your experience matches hers or not.
[Thanks to Stan Garfield's Weekly Knowledge Management Blog for pointing out this great resource.]
April 15, 2008
April 15 is the day we count our blessings and then give a cut to Uncle Sam. While the offering to Uncle Sam may be grudging, it is with absolute sincerity that I'd like to thank the folks who have helped launch my new blog.
First and foremost, Joy London, whose recommendation in excited utterances led to a remarkable spike in my readership. Thank you, Joy, for the graciousness and generosity of your recommendation. And thank you for the private encouragement you've given me as I start down this blogging path. You blazed a trail for the rest of us a long time ago and I'm grateful for your expertise and advice.
In the inimitable words of Dennis Kennedy: "I have no doubt that Tom Mighell has mentioned many more new legal blogs than the number of blogs that have links back to his blog. He's a saint – I'm not quite that saintly." Dennis makes this observation in the course of a post entitled "What are the Most Common Mistakes a New Legal Blogger Makes," in which he reminds bloggers who are lucky enough to be mentioned by a more established blogger that they should not be delinquent in thanking the experienced blogger. So, without further adieu,
Dear Tom Mighell and Kevin O'Keefe:
Thank you, Tom Mighell, for mentioning my neophyte efforts on your blog, Mighell's Blawg of the Day. And thank you, Kevin O'Keefe, for picking up that citation and giving it more airtime on Real Lawyers Have Blogs. I very much appreciate the boost and look forward to joining in the growing conversation among blawggers that both of you clearly are trying to foster.
April 14, 2008
In the mid 1990s many of us thought of and promoted products (e.g. Lotus Notes) as Knowledge Management (KM) "solutions", rather than "tools".While his initial focus is on Lotus Notes, his conclusions have wider application. He rightly points out that Microsoft's SharePoint may be headed for trouble if it continues to be marketed as the silver bullet KM solution, rather than a capable tool that can advance productivity in an organization that has an established knowledge sharing culture.
For organizations that did not develop an underlying methodology or knowledge sharing culture, they blamed the "solutions" [read: tool] for failing to transform the organization, while other organizations that did develop a knowledge sharing and collaborative culture thrived with these same tools.
Which leads to an interesting question: if you're at the point of considering a substantial investment in a tool like SharePoint, how do you first assess the quality of your Organization's knowledge sharing culture?
April 12, 2008
10. Culture can be mandated from the top
9. Collaboration can be "purchased" or "sharing can be rewarded"
8. KM can be outsourced
7. Anybody (who isn't busy) can do KM
6. KM can be solved by buying the right software
5. KM can be independent of the business process
4. Communities of practice can be established by the top
3. KM is about centralizing knowledge content to use it more efficiently
2. KM is really about databases
1. KM is an IT function and should be given to the CIO
I couldn't have said it better myself!
[* Some of these myths are adapted from a Top Ten Mistakes of CoPs list produced by John Hickok, director, Defense Acquisition University (DAU), knowledge management]
April 11, 2008
Many firms have passive knowledge sharing -- we use a single repository for our documents. The beauty of such a system is that it reduces to one the number of places you must go to locate firm work product. With enough ingenuity and persistence you can usually find what you're looking for there, provided (of course) that it exists. Within a few fortunate firms, lawyers need less ingenuity and persistence (at least with respect to finding documents) because their thoughtful knowledge managers and IT professional have installed fantastic search engines that make it almost painless to locate the desired content within the DMS.
This is all well and good, but it's not the Holy Grail. For KM purposes, the Holy Grail is active knowledge sharing -- where firm culture encourages lawyers to look for ways to make their knowledge available to their colleagues. Before you ask me what I'm smoking, consider the small handful of lawyers you know who voluntarily share with colleagues on their client teams or in their practice areas. Almost every firm has a few of these stellar folks. They produce while the rest of us loaf through life as knowledge parasites. What's extraordinary is that these paragons do what they do because it is the right thing to do -- despite the prevailing self-interested organizational culture. Imagine what would happen if the organizational culture actually supported the paragons and shamed the parasites?
There's a terrific challenge here for all law firm knowledge managers. The law firm that truly cracks the knowledge sharing nut will reap enormous rewards in efficiency, in quality and in collegiality. But this means more than just facilitating access to content. This means having lawyers who actively contribute and promote content within their communities of practice. The goal is to create a culture that supports a self-propelling, self-sustaining system of knowledge exchange. Then the knowledge managers can spend their days at the beach. Clearly a win-win situation for everyone.
April 10, 2008
April 9, 2008
* Knowledge Board's summary of IBM's Knowledge Sharing initiative
* Luis Suarez' post: Into the Big Blue Yonder
* PWC's Global Best Practices: Companies put a familiar face on knowledge sharing
* Dee's post at splunk.com: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Sharing
* Library clips post: Knowledge Sharing in the New KM
According to Chris Cooper (knowledge sharing solutions leader at IBM Global Business Services), this change is a "philosophical repositioning." He rightly observes that "[m]anagement suggests control: control of process and control of environment." By contrast, knowledge sharing focuses on people, processes and tools to create "organic and unimposed sharing" leading to the efficient circulation of knowledge.
Now that a blue chip company has adopted knowledge sharing as its preferred alternative to knowledge management, the approach probably can't be viewed as radical or cutting edge. So I guess I'm a little late to the party. (As are all of us who have been toiling in the vineyards these last few years trying to "manage" knowledge.) Oh well. Better late than never.
April 7, 2008
For some time, I've been frustrated by the seeming futility of trying to "manage" knowledge. In pursuit of well-managed knowledge many of us have created elaborate systems and databases that require some or all of the following supporting factors: cooperative users, sophisticated search engines, smart profiling tools, and incredibly competent KM professionals who actually understand the substance of the content they are trying to manage. There are few organizations that are fortunate enough to have all these factors in place.
So if you don't work in one of these fortunate organizations, what's the better approach? Knowledge Sharing. This means that we stop trying to gather, classify, distribute or otherwise herd knowledge. Instead we create more opportunities for content creators and content consumers to share knowledge. The current law firm knowledge management fad is to provide this by using web 2.0 tools such as wikis and blogs. (I call this a fad since there has been a lot of talk, but when I last checked very few large US firms could actually claim widespread use of these tools by their lawyers.) Despite the apparent slowness of law firms to adopt these new tools, they do show a great deal of promise for knowledge sharing purposes.
It's worth noting that the rather skimpy wikipedia entry on knowledge sharing rightly points out that technology is not the main issue when it comes to knowledge sharing. Equally important are organizational culture, trust and incentives.
April 5, 2008
For those who would like to move out of collaboration hell and closer to collaboration nirvana, take a cold, hard look at what is required to create a culture of collaboration. Clearly this is something that demands tremendous leadership, consistent follow through, access to sensible tools, and careful hiring. In other words, it's a big project that cannot be accomplished unless it is a high priority for your organization.
All of which leads me to wonder how many true collaboration nirvanas exist in the workplace?
April 3, 2008
Returning from a few days out of the office, I was reminded again of how oppressive a jammed Outlook Inbox can be. Even though I diligently checked and responded to e-mail messages during my absence, I still faced a daunting pile of messages and related items that required follow-up. The resulting sensation was a little like suffocation -- with the likely outcome of death by e-mail.
There is an extreme, but highly effective, strategy for avoiding death by e-mail: simply declare an e-mail moratorium. Luis Suarez has completed seven weeks of Giving up on Work e-mail. Others like Lawrence Lessig and Fred Wilson have declared "e-mail bankruptcy." In the words of Wilson, "I am so far behind on email that I am declaring bankruptcy." Haven't we all experienced that feeling.
A less drastic measure is to follow the advice of Lifehacker Gina Trapani who recommends dumping that backlog into a separate Outlook folder and starting with a clean slate. You'll feel like you've lost 20 pounds. Alternatively, the folks at Lifehack offer How to Avoid E-Mail Bankruptcy: 5 Rules that Work.
Jack Vinson's post, Yours is bigger than mine, ha ha, points out that a key problem is that we are profligate in our approach to e-mail. We send too many messages to too many people. Mutually assured destruction by e-mail. The only solution to this is to send e-mail sparingly.
Being an advocate of incremental change, I took Gina's advice. It's an interesting experiment in personal knowledge management, but it seems to me to be very necessary. I can attest to the incredible lightness of being I experienced when my inbox shrank from several thousand messages to fewer than 10. Now let's see how long this lasts.
April 1, 2008
While this may lead to full employment for knowledge managers, it also points to the futility of the task we've set ourselves. We're trying to capture the ocean with a bucket.
So what is a more fruitful way of approaching this? Perhaps we should act as "knowledge purveyors" -- suppliers of essential provisions, rather than tinkers selling everything (including the kitchen sink). Or "knowledge facilitators" -- people who make things easier by helping colleagues find the knowledge they need. Or, "knowledge brokers" -- acting as intermediaries between the sources of the knowledge and the consumers of knowledge.
Perhaps it's time to revisit that KM Elevator Speech. As any lawyer will tell you, it's all in the definitions.